Ap Macro Unit 1 2 Opportunity Cost & The Ppc

according to the law of increasing opportunity costs,

The increasing marginal opportunity cost is due to the fact that some resources are better suited for producing one good than another. Eventually, we have to take experienced construction workers and set them down behind a computer and tell them to start programming. To produce $25 in income from secretarial work, the attorney must lose $175 in income by not practicing law. They are better off by producing an hour’s worth of legal services and hiring the secretary to type and organize. The secretary is much better off typing and organizing for the attorney; their opportunity cost of doing so is low. Figure 2.5 “Production Possibilities for the Economy” illustrates a much smoother production possibilities curve.

according to the law of increasing opportunity costs,

This production possibilities curve in Panel includes 10 linear segments and is almost a smooth curve. As we include more and more production units, the curve will become smoother and smoother.

What Is The Law Of Increasing Cost?

Often, suppliers choose to increase their production of goods in order to increase profits, but increasing production can also increase costs. The law of increasing cost explains why costs can increase as production increases. If you own a business or work in the field of economics, then understanding the law of increasing cost can help you make informed decisions for your company and use your company’s production resources efficiently. In this article, we explain what the law of increasing cost is and who uses it, and we also list examples and frequently asked questions related to this concept.

according to the law of increasing opportunity costs,

It examines either the economy as a whole or its basic subdivisions, such as the household, the business sector, the government, and the foreign sector. A key question is whether this residual is enough to justify that the business owners continue to operate the business. For example if a landowner is not paid rent, the landowner will shift the land to another use that pays a rent. Likewise, the business owners need to decide if the business is generating enough return to justify keeping the land in the current business. If no, the business owners would be expected to shift the land to an alternative use.

Exercise 3 2 Production Functions

The income effect of a higher wage makes workers want more free time, while the substitution effect provides an incentive to work longer hours. If the income effect dominates the substitution effect, workers will prefer fewer hours of work. In this case the substitution effect is bigger, so with the higher wage you take less free time.

  • Since opportunity costs frequently relate to future events, they are often difficult to quantify.
  • Most countries in the world, including the United States, use a mix of private and government enterprises to allocate the nation’s resources in providing goods and services.
  • A model of decision making under scarcity can be applied to the question of how much time to spend working, when facing a trade-off between more free time and more income.
  • Explore the gains from trade and the benefits of countries specializing in the goods that are the least expensive to produce and exchange with other nations.
  • It also studies why a nation experiences different output growth rates, inflation rates, and unemployment rates in different time periods.
  • The attorney is better at producing legal services than the secretary and is also a faster typist and organizer.

On the curve furthest to the left, free time is scarce, and the MRS is high. As we move to the right along the red line he is less willing to give up points for free time. If studying for more than 15 hours had a negative effect on Alexei’s grade, then according to the law of increasing opportunity costs, the marginal product would be negative, implying a downward-sloping curve beyond 15 hours. The marginal product and the average product at 20 hours are both 4.5. The marginal product and average product are approximately the same for the initial hour.

On The Production Line

Increasing opportunity costs occurs when you produce more and more of one good and you give up more and more of another good. This occurs when resources are less adaptable when moving from the production of one good to the production of another good. Constant opportunity cost occurs when the opportunity cost stays the same as you increase your production of one good. This indicates that the resources are easily adaptable from the production of one good to the production of another good. The law of increasing opportunity cost tells us that the opportunity costs of our choices tend to rise over time.

Comparative advantage is closely associated with free trade, which is seen as beneficial, whereas tariffs closely correspond to restricted trade and a zero-sum game. Hypothetically, say that Michael Jordan could paint his house in eight hours. In those same eight hours, though, he could also take part in the filming of a television commercial which would earn him $50,000. By contrast, Jordan’s neighbor Joe could paint the house in 10 hours. In that same period of time, he could work at a fast food restaurant and earn $100. Absolute advantage refers to the uncontested superiority of a country to produce a particular good better.

according to the law of increasing opportunity costs,

As free time becomes more plentiful, Alexei becomes less and less willing to give up grade points for more time. At H he is only willing to give up 4 points for an extra hour of free time. As we move down the indifference curve, the MRS diminishes, because points become scarce relative to free time. If we plot this relationship on a graph, we get the curve in Figure 3.5. Alexei can achieve a higher grade by studying more, so the curve slopes upward.

What Is The Law Of Increasing Opportunity Cost In Economics?

We can interpret the change between 1900 and 2013 in daily free time and goods per day for employees in the US using our model. The solid lines show the feasible sets for free time and bookkeeping goods in 1900 and 2013, where the slope of each budget constraint is the real wage. The budget constraint is a feasible frontier with a constant marginal rate of transformation.

Shifters Of The Production Possibilities Curve Ppc

The discussion also introduces Return on Assets and Return on Equity . For each decision you made, rate the opportunity cost as high or low. The opportunity cost of a choice is the value of the best alternative given up. The production possibility frontier shows the possibilities of trade off between two products. The trade off in this frontier use all the resources available. So it is impossible to reach a point outside the frontier, there are not enough resources. Determining the best way to use money is frequently an exercise in finding the choice with the lowest opportunity cost.

The effect of additional income on your choice of free time and consumption. Imagine that you are looking for a job after you leave college. Jobs differ according to the number of hours you have to work—so what would be your ideal number of hours? Together, the wage and the hours of work will determine how much free time you will have, and your total earnings.

If the technology of producing coal in New Zealand developed such that it can produce 12 tons per year, go through problem 1 to 4 again. The United States is an example of a pure market economy in which all resource allocation is accomplished through the market. In the real world, what we observe are price increases primarily, therefore our demand for goods is always decreasing.

In this lesson, you’ll learn how the costs of unemployment impose on each of these. I hope you have enjoyed your journey to the frontier and learned some valuable lessons about economics along the way. At this point, Econ Isle can produce 12 units of gadgets and 0 widgets.

Finding the best use for money is often an exercise in identifying the use that carries the lowest opportunity cost. People who use the law of increasing cost often work in the field of economics, including economists, financial analysts, accountants and other economic professionals. Business owners can also benefit from understanding the law of increasing cost, as it can often help them operate their businesses at their full capacity and as efficiently as adjusting entries possible. This can help business owners to maximize their profits, which can heavily contribute to the success of a company. Therefore, the law of increasing cost can be extremely useful for business owners to understand to maintain the financial health of their company. Let’s increase widget production in increments of 2 again until only widgets and no gadgets are produced. But this time we’ll consider opportunity cost that varies along the frontier.

Let’s say that our class represented a country and we were going to produce houses and software programs. The curve on the graph is the production possibilities curve or frontier which shows the maximum combination of houses and software programs we are capable of producing. Making smart decisions is important to avoid increasing opportunity cost over time. Evaluate whether your situation fits into the law of increasing costs examples of the constant opportunity cost graph to decide what will be best not only in the short-term but for your future steps as well. The law of increasing cost is useful to consider before your business increases the production of a certain product. To understand the law of increasing cost as it relates to your business, it can be helpful to look at your situation on a production possibility frontier.


Explain how the Production Possibilities Curve reflects scarcity and opportunity cost. Think of personal examples that will move you away from or twoard the Production Possibilities adjusting entries Curve or shift the Production Possibilities Curve (e.g., the 2010 earthquakes in Haiti and Chile). Recall the PPC is based on a fixed set of resources and technology.

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